Primary Sources & References
Newspaper Microfilm Archive Sources:

The following is a partial list of books, newspapers, magazines, and archives surveyed in compiling this Website.  Only those with the most relevant material are listed.

Reproduced articles and photos on this website derived from this source material can be found at:

Roswell press coverage page with multiple links to over 40 articles
Post-Roswell military debunkery page with multiple links to over 40 articles, many photos
Gen. Ramey information page with link to 1952 article on Ramey debunking saucers on TV plus many other links to other articles, including Ramey debunking saucers before Roswell.
Gen. Vandenberg information page with link to Dr. Vannevar Bush article denying knowledge
Rancher Mack Brazel press conference page
1950 UFO mass sightings California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and southern U.S.

Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  Albuquerque Journal
  Arizona Republic (Phoenix)
  Atlanta Journal
  Baton Rouge State Times and Sunday Advocate
  Boston Herald
  Charleston News and Courier
  Chicago Daily News
  Chicago Sun
  Dallas Morning News
  Denver Post
  Detroit Free-Press
  Houston Post
  Miami Herald
  Milwaukee Journal
  Newark News
  Newark Star-Ledger 
  New York Daily Worker
  Norfolk Virginian-Pilot
  Oklahoma City Daily Oklahoman
  Philadelphia Inquirer
  Salt Lake Deseret News
  San Antonio Express
  Tulsa (OK) Daily World
  Tuscon Daily Citizen
  Washington (DC) Daily News
  Washington (DC) Star
  Washington (DC) Times-Herald
  Wisconson State Journal (Madison)


Arizona State University, Tempe
  Arizona Republic (Phoenix)
  Phoenix Gazette

Arizona State Historical Library, Phoenix
  Arizona Daily Star (Tuscon)
  Arizona Daily Sun (Flagstaff)
  Arizona Republic (Phoenix)
  Nogales Daily Herald
  Phoenix Gazette
  Prescott Evening Courier
  Tucson Daily Citizen
  Yuma Daily Sun

University of Northern Arizona, Flagstaff
  Arizona Daily Sun (Flagstaff)
  Arizona Daily Star (Tucson)
  Arizona Republic (Phoenix)
  Gallup (N.M.) Independent

Mohave Museum of History and Art, Kingman, Arizona
  Mohave County Miner (Kingman)


Bakersfield/Kern County PublicLibrary
  Bakersfield Press
  Edwards AFB Desert Wings
  Inyo County Register (Bishop)
  Mojave Desert News
  Mojave Record
  Shafter Press (Did carry local flying saucer sighting from June 21)
  Tehachapi News

California State Historical Library, Sacramento
  Bakersfield Californian
  Contra Costa Gazette (Martinez, CA)
  Hanford (CA) Morning Journal
  Humboldt Standard (Eureka, CA)
  Imperial Valley News (El Centro, CA)
  Los Angeles Examiner
  Los Angeles Herald-Express
  Marysville-Yuba City (CA) Appeal-Democrat
  Riverside Daily Press
  Sacramento Union
  Salinas Californian
  Santa Ana Register
  San Bernardino Daily Sun
  Santa Barbara News Press
  Santa Cruz Sentinel-News
  San Diego Union
  San Jose Mercury-Herald
  Santa Rosa Press-Democrat
  Vallejo (CA) News Chronicle

University of California Berkeley Library
  Alameda (CA) Times-Star
  Alturas Plain-Dealer & Modoc County Times
  Atlanta Constitution
  Bakersfield Californian
  Berkeley Daily Gazette
  Bridgeport (CA) Chronicle-Union
  Brawley (CA) News
  Chico (CA) Enterprise-Record
  Colusa (CA) Sun-Herald
  Crescent City (CA) Del Norte Triplicate
  Chicago Tribune
  Christian Science Monitor
  Dinuba (CA) Sentinel
  Downieville (CA) Mountain Messenger
  Eureka (CA) Humboldt Times
  Fresno Bee
  Grass Valley-Nevada City (CA) Union
  Hanford (CA) Morning Journal
  Hayward (CA) Daily Review
  Hollister (CA) Daily Free-Lance
  Inyo County Register (Bishop, CA)
  Inyo Independent
  Lakeport (CA) Lake County News
  LIFE Magazine
  Los Angeles Times
  Marysville-Yuba City (CA) Appeal-Democrat
  Madra, India, The Hindu
  New York Times
  Oakland Tribune
  Palo Alto Times
  Placerville (CA) Mountain-Democrat
  Portland Oregonian
  Red Bluff (CA) Daily News
  Redding (CA) Record-Searchlight & Courier Free Press
  Sacramento Bee
  Redding Record-Searchlight & Courier Free Press
  San Andreas Calaveras Prospect
  San Diego Union
  San Francisco Chronicle
  San Francisco Examiner
  San Francisco News
  San Jose Mercury News
  San Mateo (CA) Times
  Science News Letter
  Scientific American Magazine
  Seattle Post-Intelligencer
  Shafter (CA) Press
  St. Louis Post-Dispatch
  Stockton Record
  Susanville (CA) Lassen Advocate (biweekly)
  Terra Bella News
  TIME Magazine
  Washington Post
  Weekly Trinity Journal (Weaverville, CA)
  Willows (CA) Daily Journal & Glenn Transcript

University of California at Davis Library
   New York Herald-Tribune
   Saturday Evening Post

University of California San Diego Library
  San Diego Union

  Barstow Public Library,  Barstow Printer-Review
  Bishop Public Library, Inyo County Register
Needles Public Library, Needles Star
  Palmdale Public Library, Antelope Valley Press (Palmdale/Lancaster)
  San Francisco Public Library, San Francisco Examiner morgue files
  Victorville Sun, Victorville, California
  Victorville Public Library, Victorville Victor Press
Boise Public Library
  Boise Evening Statesman
  Boise Evening Statesman
  Idaho Daily (and Sunday) Statesman (Boise)
  Idaho Evening Statesman (Boise)


Murray State College, Murray
  Memphis Tennessean

University of Kentucky, Lexington
  Bowling Green (KY) Park City Daily News
  Cincinnati Enquirer
  Kansas City (MO) Star
  Lexington Herald
  Lexington Leader
  Louisville Courier-Journal
  Louisville Times


Missouri Historical Society Library, Columbia
  Butler (MO) Weekly Times and  Bates County Record
  Cape Girardeau Southeast Missourian
  Charleston (MO) Enterprise-Courier  
  Clinton (MO) Henry County Democrat
  Columbia Daily Tribune
  Columbia Missourian
  Jefferson City (MO) Daily Capital News
  Jefferson City  Sunday News and Tribune
  Joplin (MO) Globe
  Sedalia (MO) Capital
  Sedalia Democrat
  Sikeston (MO) Daily Standard
  Springfield (MO) Daily News
  Springfield Leader-Press
  St. Louis Globe-Democrat
  St. Louis Star-Times
  Warrensburg (MO) Star-Journal

University of Missouri Library, Columbia 
  Baltimore Evening Sun
  Chicago Sun
  Des Moines Register
  Des Moines Tribune
  Detroit News
  Kansas City (MO) Star
  Louisville Courier-Journal
  Minneapolis (MN) Morning Tribune
  Washington (DC) Evening Star

University of Missouri, St. Louis  
  St. Louis Post-Dispatch
  St. Louis Globe-Democrat


Nevada State Library, Carson City
  Austin Reese River Reveille
  Battle Mountain Scout
  Boulder City News
  Caliente Herald
  Carson City Chronicle
  Elko Independent
  Ely Record
  Ely Times
  Fallon Standard
  Gardnerville Record-Courier
  Goldfield News
  Goldfield News & Beatty Bulletin
  Hawthorne Mineral County Independent
  Las Vegas Free Press (became LV Morning Sun July 1, 1950)
  Pioche Record
  Sparks Tribune
  Tonopah Times-Bonanza
  Virginia City News
  Virginia City Territorial-Enterprise
  Wells Progress

University of Nevada Las Vegas Library
  Battle Mountain (NV) Scout
  Boulder City (NV) News
  Caliente (NV) Herald
  Carson City Nevada Appeal
  Elko (NV) Daily Free Press
  Ely (NV) Record
  Eureka Sentinel
  Humboldt Star (Winnemucca, NV)
  Fallon (NV) Standard
  Fallon Eagle
  Hawthorne Mineral County Independent
  Henderson Home News
  Las Vegas Review-Journal
  Las Vegas Sun
  Nevada State Journal (Reno)
  Reno Evening Gazette
  Santa Fe New Mexican
  Tonopah (NV) Times-Bonanza and Goldfield News
  Winnemucca Humboldt Star
  Wells Progress

University of Nevada Reno Library
  Elko Daily Free Press
  Elko Independent
  Ely Daily Times
  Ely Record
  Goldfield News and Beatty Bulletin
  Gardenville (NV) Record-Courier
  Henderson (NV) Home News
  Inyo Register (CA)
  Lovelock Review-Miner
  Las Vegas Valley Times
  Pioche (NV) Record
  Sparks (NV) Tribune
  Tahoe Daily Tribune
  Tonopah Times-Bonanza and Goldfield News
  Wells (NV) Progress
  Yerington Mason Valley News

New Jersey

New Jersey State Archives, Trenton
  Hoboken Jersey Observer
  Moorestown (N.J.) News-Chronicle
  Passaic (N.J.) Sunday Eagle
  Summitt (N.J.) Herald

New Jersey State Library, Trenton
  Newark Star-Ledger
  Trenton Evening Times

Princeton Public Library
  Princeton Herald
  Princeton Record

Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick
  Asbury Park (N.J.) Evening News and Sunday Press
  Bergen Evening Record (Hackensack, N.J.)
  Brooklyn (N.Y.) Eagle
  Elizabeth (N.J.) Daily Journal
  Long Branch/Red Bank (N.J.) Daily Record
  Newark Evening News
  Newark Star-Ledger
  New Brunswick Daily Home News and Sunday Times
  Paterson (N.J.) Morning Call

New Mexico

New Mexico State Library and Archives, Santa Fe
  Alamogordo News
  Las Vegas (N.M.) Daily Optic
  New Mexico Magazine
  New Mexico Press (Clovis)
  Raton Daily Range
  Roswell Daily Record
  The Daily Current-Argus (Carlsbad)

University of New Mexico Zimmerman Library, Albuquerque
  Alamogordo News
  Albuquerque Journal
  Albuquerque Tribune
  Gallup (N.M.) Independent
  Hobbs (N.M.) Daily News-Sun
  Las Cruces Citizen
  Las Cruces Sun-News
  Lincoln County News and Carrizozo Outlook (Carrizozo, N.M.)
  New Mexico Magazine
  Portales (N.M.) Daily News
  Roswell Daily Record
  Roswell Morning Dispatch
  Santa Rosa (N.M.) News
  Silver City (N.M.) Daily Press
  Tucumcari Daily News
Los Alamos Public Library
  Los Alamos News, Los Alamos Herald

San Juan College, Farmington
  Farmington Daily News

Socorro Public Library
  Socorro Chieftain


Ohio State Historical Society, Columbus
  Cleveland Plain Dealer
  Columbus Citizen
  Columbus Dispatch

University of Dayton, Dayton
  Dayton Daily News


Oklahoma Historical Society, Oklahoma City
  Lawton Constitution
  Lawton Morning Press
  Oklahoma City Daily Oklahoman
  Tulsa Tribune

University of Central Oklahoma, Lawton
  Manchester (England) Guardian
  Oklahoma City Daily Oklahoman
  Tulsa Daily World

Rhode Island

Providence Public Library
  Providence Evening Bulletin
  Providence Journal

Rhode Island Historical Society, Providence
  Pawtucket (R.I.) Times


Rice University Library, Houston
  Atlanta Constitution
  Houston Chronicle
Texas Historical Archives Library, Austin
  Amarillo News-Globe
  San Angelo Standard Times

University of North Texas Library, Denton
  Dallas Daily Times-Herald
  Denton Record-Chronicle

University of Texas at Arlington Library
  Houston Post
  Dallas Morning News
  Fort Worth Star-Telegram (early morning edition)

University of Texas at Austin, Center For American History
  Amarillo Daily News
  Austin American
  Austin Daily Texan
Houston Post
  San Antonio Express
University of Texas at El Paso Library
  El Paso Herald-Post
  El Paso Times

Austin Public Library
  Austin American
  Austin Statesman

Fort Worth Public Library
  Fort Worth Press
  Fort Worth Star-Telegram, early morning and evening editions

Witchita Falls Public Library
  Witchita Falls Daily Times
  Witchita Falls Record-News


Cedar City Public Library
  Iron County Record (Cedar City)

Southern Utah University Library (Cedar City)
  Salt Lake Deseret News (Daily)
  St. George Washington County News


University of Washington Seattle Library
  Anchorage (AK) Daily Times
  Bremerton (WA) Salute (Puget Sound Naval Shipyard)
  Longview (WA) Daily News
  New York Herald-Tribune
  New York PM
  Seattle Post-Intelligencer
  Seattle Star
  Seattle Times
  Tacoma News-Tribune
  Yakima (WA) Daily Republic


Bar Harbor (Maine) Public Library
   Bar Harbor Times

Chicago Public Libary
  Chicago's American
  Chicago Herald-American
  Chicago Daily News
  Chicago Sun
  Chicago Daily Times
  New York Herald Tribune, Paris

Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh Penn.
  Philadelphia Inquirer
  Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

Harvard University Widener Library, Cambridge, Mass.
  Birmingham (AL) Age-Herald
  Boston Daily Globe
  Charlotte (N.C.) Observer
  Denver Post
  Detroit News
  Louisville Courier-Journal
  Milwaukee Journal
  Minneapolis Tribune

National Library of Canada, Toronto
  Belleville (Ont.) Intelligencer
  Halifax Chronicle-Herald
  Kingston (Ont.) Whig-Standard
  La Presse, Montreal
  London (Ont.) Evening Free Press
  Montreal Gazette
  Ottowa Citzen
  Toronto Globe and Mail
  Windsor (Ont.) Star
  Winnepeg Free Press

New Haven (Conn.) Public Library
  New Haven Evening Register

North Dakota State Historical Library, Bismarck
  Bismarck Tribune
  Fargo (N.D.) Forum
  Grand Forks (N.D.) Herald
  Minot (N.D.) Daily News

Oregon Historical Society, Portland
  Eugene Register-Guard
  Pendleton East Oregonian
  Portland Oregon Journal

Sault St. Marie Public Library, Canada
  Sault Star
  Toronto Globe and Mail

University of Arkansas Library, Fayettesville
  Arkansas Democrat (Little Rock)
  Arkansas Gazette (Little Rock)
  Malvern (Ark.) Daily Record
  Tulsa (OK) Daily World

University of Hawaii Library, Honolulu
  Bankok Post
  Honolulu Advertiser
  Honolulu Star-Bulletin
  Manila Times

University of Indiana Library, Bloomington
  Evansville (IN) Courier
  Indianapolis News
  Indianapolis Star

University of Iowa Library, Iowa City
  Cedar Rapids Gazette
  Des Moines Register
University of Nebraska Library, Lincoln
  Lincoln Evening Journal
  North-China Daily News (Shanghai)
  Omaha Morning World-Herald

University of Wyoming Library, Laramie
  Casper (WY) Tribune-Herald
  Laramie Republican-Boomerang
  Rocky Mountain News (Denver)
  Wyoming Eagle (Cheyanne)
  Wyoming State Tribune (Cheyanne)

Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo
  Kalamazoo Gazette

White Plains N.Y. Public Library
  White Plains Reporter-Dispatch

The British Library Newspaper Library, London, England
  London Daily Herald
  London Daily Mail
  London Daily Telegraph & Morning Post
  London Sunday Dispatch

Misc. References

Data on National Radiosonde Weather Stations:  National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Web Site (link now defunct)

1948 Tinker AFB letter to Project SIGN about using weather radar for UFO detection from John Greenewald, Jr.'s Black Vault Website, Air Force section, Wright-Patterson UFO documents, GIF #75

1948 Atlanta Journal article on Chiles-Whitted UFO sighting with the USAF debunking it as a radar target can be downloaded from the FBI's Freedom of Information UFO files, Part 06.  This requires a PDF file reader such as Adobe Acrobat.  The article is on pages 17 & 18 of the file.

Fort Worth Star-Telegram Photos in Gen. Ramey's office and of radar target demonstration, courtesy, Fort Worth Star-Telegram Photograph Collection, Special Collections Division, University of Texas at Arlington Libraries

Fort Worth Star-Telegram articles, including July 7 edition depicting Circleville radar target on front page, courtesy of Mr. J. Bond Johnson, the 1947 Star-Telegram photographer who took six of seven known photos in Gen. Ramey's office on July 8.

San Antonio Light frontpage of July 7 showing Circleville radar target orginally from San Antonio Express-News website, link now defunct.

Circleville [Ohio] Herald stories on Circleville radar target crashes originally obtained by OHIO MUFON researcher Mr. Pete Hartinger.

Other1947 newspaper photos and stories provided courtesy of Jan Aldrich, head of Project 1947.  Project 1947 is attempting to do a comprehensive national survey of UFO stories from the nation's newspapers in 1947 and other years as well.  Aldrich, with experience in the Army weather service, has also pointed out that radar targets were widely used by artillery units in addition to the weather services.

Misc. book references:

1. 1995 USAF The Roswell Report: Fact vs. Fiction in the New Mexico Desert, Headquarters USAF, U.S. Government Printing Office, ISBN 0-16-048023-X. (Now online

Brief Review:  Includes interviews with Mogul balloon personnel such as Charles Moore and Col. Albert Trakowski suggesting counterintelligence being behind Alamogordo launch, supposedly as cover for Project Mogul.  The Report also has a cropped copy of the July 10, 1947 Alamogordo News article of the staged weather balloon/radar reflector launch of the previous day.  Overall very shallow, incomplete, and biased, "researched" and written not by impartial historians but by propagandist Air Force counterintelligence officers trying to diffuse a Congressional General Accounting Office investigation.into Roswell.  Newsweek Magazine called their early release of a report synopsis at a press conference prior to the completion of the GAO's investigation a "preemptive strike."  Notably excluded from the Report was testimony of two Air Force generals, Brig. Generals Arthur Exon and Thomas Dubose, Dubose saying that it wasn't a balloon and there had been a cover-up, and Exon saying it was indeed the crash of a spacecraft.

2. UFO Crash at Roswell:  The Genesis of a Modern Myth, Benson Saler, Charles Ziegler, and Charles B. Moore, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997, ISBN 1-56098-751-0

Brief Review:  Moore, one of the original engineers on the New Mexico Mogul Project, has some interesting historical material on the radar targets, including their use at White Sands and Wilmington, Ohio, but the rest of this book (including portions by Moore) is generic debunking.  Moore shows some of his bias in charting a hypothetical trajectory of his little lost Mogul balloon, utilizing only those assumptions which will make it crash exactly where he wants it to crash. Recent analysis has also shown Moore used seriously flawed math in his "calculation."  Moore's model turns out to be a flagrant hoax!  However, Moore uses a lot of numbers, tables, and graphs, giving it the false sense of being a scientific treatment of the problem.  It's not.  Unfortunately, this blatantly forced balloon trajectory is often cited as strong evidence by uncritical skeptics that this Mogul balloon must account for the Roswell events.  (e.g., see Skeptical Inquirer article

NEW  Critical review of Moore's theory showing how he hoaxed his own model.

3.  The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, Cpt. Edward J. Ruppelt, 1956, Doubleday & Company, Inc.  (now online)

Brief Review:  One of the true classic books on the UFO phenomenon.  Ruppelt was the first director of the USAF's Project Blue Book, the official public USAF investigation of UFOs started in 1952.  In fact, Ruppelt was the man who coined the term UFO to describe a diverse phenomenon in preference to the more generic term of flying saucers.  Ruppelt provided an important insider's viewpoint of what official thinking really was as opposed to the public proclamations and debunking.  He also alluded a number of times to highly secretive parallel UFO investigations out of the public eye by people and agencies he refused to identify.  Ruppelt's anecdote about Admiral Gallery suggesting his White Sands missile chief had been drinking after he wrote his pro-UFO magazine article is in Chapter 6.  Ruppelt also wrote about several major New Mexico UFO sightings by the same balloon people affiliated with Project Mogul.  (See new section on Project Mogul UFO sightings)  Ruppelt stated that they practically tossed him out when he suggested that maybe they had been seeing their own balloons (Chapter 9).  In Chapter 4, Ruppelt covered the New Mexico green fireballs that started in late 1948.  This included the opinions of Los Alamos scientists, who had been witnesses, that they were probes coming from orbiting spacecraft.